# Tools for field work

## Note-taking forms (pdf files)

- Lithologic log: use for measuring and describing stratigraphic sections
- Lithologic log, with pale green grid: like the form above, but with a pale green grid to aid in aligning notes with the measured section
- Faunal log: use for recording the changing abundance and distribution of fossils within a stratigraphic section
- Faunal tally: use for making counts of faunal abundances within stratigraphic units
- Locality: use for recording locality information, such as geographic location and stratigraphic interval
- Notes: use for taking general notes

## Estimating true thickness of covered intervals where outcrop is oblique to dip

1) Measure the true strike of the strata (θ_{strike})

2) Measure the true dip of the strata (δ)

3) Measure the azimuth of the road (θ_{road})

4) Calculate the angle (β) between the road and the strike of the strata as β = | θ_{road} - θ_{strike} |

5) Calculate the apparent dip (α) of the strata along the road as α = arctan [sin(β) ⋅ tan(δ)]

6) Measure the apparent thickness (t) of the covered interval along the road using a Jacob staff set to the apparent dip of the strata along the road (α)

7) Calculate the true thickness (T) of the covered interval as T = t ⋅ [cos(δ) / cos(α)]

## Estimating the vertical distance between two horizontal beds with a rangefinder and clinometer

1) Using a laser rangefinder, measure the distance from you to the lower bed (a). Using a clinometer, measure the vertical angle to the bed (alpha).

2) Using the laser rangefinder and clinometer, make the same measurements for the upper bed (b and beta).

3) Solve for the vertical distance between the beds (V), with

V=b sin(beta) - a sin(alpha)