# Tools for field work

## Note-taking forms

- Lithologic log: use for measuring and describing stratigraphic sections
- Faunal log: use for recording the changing abundance and distribution of fossils within a stratigraphic section
- Faunal tally: use for making counts of faunal abundances within stratigraphic units
- Locality: use for recording locality information, such as geographic location and stratigraphic interval
- Notes: use for taking general notes

## Estimating true thickness of covered intervals where outcrop is oblique to dip

1) Measure the true strike of the strata (θ_{strike})

2) Measure the true dip of the strata (δ)

3) Measure the azimuth of the road (θ_{road})

4) Calculate the angle (β) between the road and the strike of the strata as

β = | θ_{road} - θ_{strike} |

5) Calculate the apparent dip (α) of the strata along the road as

α = arctan [sin(β) ⋅ tan(δ)]

6) Measure the apparent thickness (t) of the covered interval along the road using a Jacob staff set to the apparent dip of the strata along the road (α)

7) Calculate the true thickness (T) of the covered interval as

T = t ⋅ [cos(δ) / cos(α)]

## Estimating the vertical distance between two horizontal beds with a rangefinder and clinometer

1) Using a laser rangefinder, measure the distance from you to the lower bed (a). Using a clinometer, measure the vertical angle to the bed (alpha).

2) Using the laser rangefinder and clinometer, make the same measurements for the upper bed (b and beta).

3) Solve for the vertical distance between the beds (V), with

V = b sin(beta) - a sin(alpha)

## Code for drone-based section measurement

This R script will fit a plane to a set of points picked on a 3-d model obtained from drone-based photogrammetry, calculate the strike and dip of that plane, and rotate that plane so that it is horizontal. By removing the dip of the beds, the z-coordinate of each of the points represents stratigraphic position. Also, check out our poster from the 2016 GSA meeting.

## Making acetate peels

Learn how to make an acetate peel along with getting the materials you will need. The method is explained for bryozoans, but it will work for any carbonate rock or fossil.